All Begins With Attitude (actual paper is app. 5400 words)
Cloning – The Bio Ethical Concept (actual paper is app. 1868 words)
3. Sample Bibliography
1. It All Begins With Attitude
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines the word "attitude" as "a mental position or feeling with regard to an object." The mental positions or feelings are our thoughts, beliefs and opinions. The object is life. In other words, attitudes encompass all of the thoughts, beliefs and opinions which people have about their lives.
Over 2500 years ago, Buddha said, "All that we are is the result of what we have thought; it is founded on our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him."
Buddha also said, "It is a man's own mind - not his enemy or his foe that lures him into evil ways." A person's attitude, what Buddha was speaking of, is the very foundation on which his or her life's experience has been, is, and will be built. Every part of reality is the result of a person's attitudes. In simple terms, our attitudes reflect what we expect from life. This shouldn't be confused with what we want, dream or hope for. No one wants to be unhappy, lead a boring life or look back over the years with remorse and regret. Yet, so often rather than expecting the best life has to offer, people expect much the opposite. They expect problems and get problems; expect disappointments and are disappointed; expect to fail and then, rather than experience the desired success, they fail.
If attitudes are the mental expectations about jobs, relationships, financial status and so on, then these very powerful thoughts must be the elements which set the course for our lives and destiny. It isn't life's circumstances which create the attitudes; it's the attitudes which create life's circumstances. When people change their expectations and attitudes, then their lives must surely change as well.
I know a gentleman who, in the late 1960's, worked as a repossessor of logging trucks. If you will, create a mental image of a person who walks up to burly truck drivers and says, "I have to either have a payment or the keys, whichever you want." I would picture someone about 6'3" and 220 pounds of solid muscle. As it happens, Jim Cathcart is 5'9", rather slender and not the muscular type. People who repossess cars, foreclose homes, or work for collection agencies tend to be negative thinkers. However, one day Jim heard a radio program with a message about the power of positive expectations. He changed his attitudes and began planning for and expecting an exciting success filled future. Today, Jim Cathcart is an internationally recognized leader in the field of sales and management seminars and consulting. Jim has written eight books, is the co-author of Relationship Strategies, an all time top selling audio cassette program from Nightingale-Conant, and is one of the highest paid professionals in his business. And all because he expected to succeed, he expected the best life could provide.
This article about building the foundation for your life on the concrete blocks of a positive attitude will cover four things: the source of attitudes; the difference between directive attitudes and reactive attitudes, how the word HALT can help you maintain and strengthen positive attitudes, and specific skills and techniques for building expectations for a wonderful and exciting life.
2. Cloning – The Bio Ethical Concept
Bio ethics, which is the study of value judgements pertaining to human conduct in the area of biology and includes those related to the practice of medicine, has been an important aspect of all areas in the scientific field (Bernstein, Maurice, M.D.). It is one of the factors that says whether or not certain scientific research can go on, and if it can, under which rules and regulations it must abide by. One of the most recent and controversial issues facing our society today is the idea of cloning. On February 23, 1997, Ian Wilmut, a Scottish scientist, along with his colleagues at the Roslin Institute and PPL Therapeutics, announced to the world that they had cloned a lamb, which they named Dolly, after Dolly Parton, from an adult sheep (Mario, Christopher). The two share the same nucleic DNA, but differ in terms of their mitochondria DNA, which is vitally important for the regulation of the cell. The media and the press ignored this fact, and thus claimed that Dolly and her mother were genetically identical, which sparked a fury of outcry all around the world. The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell of which the nucleus had been removed, called nuclear transplantation, is an extension of research that had been ongoing for over 40 years.
Up until now, scientists thought that adult cells could not be "reprogrammed" to behave like a fertilised egg and create an embryo, but the evidence obtained by Dolly’s success prove otherwise. The issues of cloning have been around for a long time, starting with the publication of Joshua Lederberg’s 1966 article on cloning in the American Naturalist, and the publics interest has been perked by many sci-fi books, films, and movies including Aldous Huxley’s 1932 novel "Brave New World," 1973’s "Sleeper," the 1978 film "The Boys from Brazil," and most recently, the movie "Multiplicity" (Mario, Christopher). The ethical, legal, and moral issues aroused by cloning have been raised by previous projects, and are now simply emerging again, with its focus on three major points: the shift from sexual reproduction with that of asexual replication of existing genes; the ability to predetermine the genes of a child; and the ability to create many genetically identical children (Report/Recommendations of the NBAC). The public responded to Dolly with a mixture of fear and excitement, questioning the benefits and the disasters that could happen in the future if research was to continue. From a poll taken by Maurice Bernstein, M.D., the results showed that 72% of the votes said that cloning should be prohibited by law. They believe that cloning for any reason would be an unethical and immoral thing to do. A common misconception of cloning is that it is the instantaneous creation of a fully grown adult from the cells of the individual. Also, that an exact copy, although much younger, of an existing person could be made, reflecting the belief that one’s genes bear a simple relationship to the physical and psychological traits that make up a person. This is one point that those against cloning are often worried about. That the clone would have no soul, no mind, no feelings or emotions of their own, no say in how their life will be with their destiny predetermined for them, and that each individual clone would not be unique. They are also afraid that the clone will not be treated like a person, more like a worthless second copy, or a fill-in for what was there but now is lost. Although the genes do play an important part, its the interaction among a person’s genetic inheritance, their environment, memories, different life experiences, and the process of learning that result in the uniqueness of each individual (Mario, Christopher).
3. Sample Bibliography (Cloning)